This is a smoothed negative exponential three-dimensional surface superimposed on a map of the United States. Machismo Values is a measure based on state circulation rates for magazines that stress physical strength, self-defense, weapons, combat and sex.
This variable is one of three factor scores derived from a factor analysis of the circulation rates of 48 magazines. Noted was that Machismo is especially high in the post-frontier states of the West.
The dip or saddle that can be seen in the surface is caused by Utah which is considerably lower than the surrounding states on this variable.
High Machismo states show strong signs of a frontier heritage and anomie — there are many indicators of poor social integration and weak institutional controls.
These states typically have a great influx of newcomers, a high ratio of males to females, a high proportion of males living in households without a female present, high receipts per capita for drinking establishments, high divorce rates, and low rates of church membership.
There is also a pattern of lawlessness as indicated by high homicide rates, high non-violent crime rates, a high rate of IRS tax audits, a history of vigilante justice, and current attitudes supportive of the use of violence.
Lee, Robert S. (1996). The ecology of violence in the United States. International Journal of Group Tensions. 26, 3-20.
Lee, Robert S. (1995). Regional subcultures as revealed by magazine circulation patterns. Cross-Cultural Research: 29, 91-119.